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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.

Sy o.btinwe.. XE 1891,

PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.

WASHANG TON: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1892.

ADVERTISEMENT.

The extension of the scope of the National Museum during the past few years, and the activity of the collectors employed in its interest, have caused a great increase in the amount of material in its posses- sion. Many of the objects gathered are of a novel and important character, and serve to throw a new light upon the study of nature and of man.

The importance to science of prompt publication of descriptions of this material led to the establishment, in 1878, of the present series of publications, entitled Proceedings of the United States National Museum,” the distinguishing peculiarity of which is that the articles are published in pamphlet form as fast as completed and in advance of the bound volume. The present volume constitutes the fourteenth of the series.

The articles in this series consist: First, of papers prepared by the scientific corps of the National Museum; secondly, of papers by others, founded upon the collections in the National Museum; and, finally, of facts and memoranda from the correspondence of the Smithsonian Institution.

The Bulletin of the National Museum, the publication of which was commenced in 1875, consists of elaborate papers based upon the collec- tions of the Museum, reports of expeditions, ete., while the Proceedings facilitate the prompt publication of freshly-acquired facts relating to biology, anthropology and geology, descriptions of restricted groups of animals and plants, the discussion of particular questions relative to the synonymy of species, and the diaries of minor expeditions.

Other papers, of more general popular interest, are printed in the Appendix to the Annual Report.

Papers intended for publication in the Proceedings and Bulletin of the National Museum are referred to the Advisory Committee on Pub- lications, composed as follows: T. H. Bean (chairman), A. Howard Clark, R. E. Earll, Otis T. Mason, Leonhard Stejneger, Frederick W. True, and Lester F. Ward.

S. P. LANGLEY, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Page Allen, B.A. Descriptions of twosupposed new species of mice from Costa Rica and Mexico,

with remarks on-Hesperomys melanophrys of Coues..-.----. 220-2. 2.20220 22 022c 2 eset e ees 193-196 Oryzomys talamancee, Hesperoimys (Vesperimus) afinis, new species. : Andrews, E.A. Report upon the Annelida Polycheta of Beaufort, North Carolina (Plates KN SOVALE) Samteicinvac tae eee sles elle Si dolee osictn spines cin aelecine De ccieerele sob Ad cee eee aoe eee 277-302 Harmothée aculeata, Eunice ornata, Diopatra magna, Ophelina agilis, Polydora commen- salis, Axiothea mucosa, Petaloproctus socialis, Ammochares cedificator, Loimia turgida, new species. Eean, Barton A. Fishes collected by William P. Seal, in Chesapeake Bay, at Cape

Charles City, Virginia, September 16 to October 3, 1890.....-....-...-......-..-.------.---. 83-94 Benedict, James E. and Rathbun, Mary J. The Genus Panopeus. (Plates x1x- - - SRORANI pater ee a eet lo Plt fat Pete elie Se latg aire = Some tetere setae 355-385

Panopeus areolatus, Panopeus dissimilis, Panopeus ovatus, Panopeus angustifrons, Pano- peus hemphillii, Panopeus bermudensis, new species. é Cherrie, George K. Notes on Costa Rican birds .......-.-...-.--...-2-2--2- 222222022 et 517-537 Description of new genera, species, and subspecies of birds from Costa Rica ..--.--.... 337-346 Deconychura, Premnoplex, new genera. Lophotriccus zeledoni, Pachyrhamphus ornatus, Deconychura typica, Vireo supereiliaris, Basileuterus salvini, Grallaria lizanoi, Myrmeciza intermedia, new species. Lophotric- cus squamicristatus minor, new subspecies. Cope, E. D. On the character of some Paleozoic fishes. (Plates XXVIII-XXXIII) ---...-..-. 447-463 Styptobasis knightiana, new genus and species. Tybodus regularis, Ctenacanthus amblyxiphias, Platysomus palmaris, Platysomus laco- vianus, new species. A critical review of the characters and variations of the snakes of North Ameriea..... 589-694 Hutenia aurata, new species. Hutenia sirtalis semifasciata, Eutenia sirtalis triline- ata, new subspecies. Dall, William HX. (Scientific results of explorations by the U. S. Fish Commission steamer

Albatross). No.xx—. On some new or interesting west American shells obtained from the dredgings of the U.S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross, in 1888, and from other sources, Hebel AUT Soe Wi1)) eae serie ens thar er kes 2 Ba Re Soest a ar te iat RM oe Re 173-191

Calyptogena, new genus. Trophon cerrosensis, Cancellaria Crawfordiana, Buceinwn strigillatum, Buccinum taphrium, Mohnia Frielet, Strombella Middendorfii, Strombella Sragilis, Strombella melonis, Chrysodomus ithius, Chrysodomus periscelidus, Chryso- domus phoeniceus, Chrysodomus eucosmius, Chrysodomus (Sipho) hypolispus, Ohryso- domus (Sipho) acosmius, Crysodomus (Sipho) halibrectus, Trophon (Boreotrophon) settulus, Trophon (Boreotorphon) desparilis, Solenya Johnsoni, Calyptogena pacifica, Limopsis vaginatus, new species.

Terebratella occidentalis obsoleta, new subspecies.

Eigenmann, Carl Ii., and Rosa 8S. A catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of South

PEXSTUL STR CER NaC eM eee ae Toe Te TN od arene ale ocala rah cea alias ha) Shier ened Pate eA Vs avai terse a tee pe Oa 1-81 Evermann, Barton W.,and Jenkins, Oliver P. Report upona collection of fishes,

made at Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, with descriptions of new species. (Plates 1-11) Rhinop-

tera steindachneri, Menidia clara, Upeneus rathbuni, new species. 121-165 Gilbert, Charles H. (Scientific results of explorations by the U. S. Fish Commission

steamer Albatross.) No. xx1.—Descriptions of apodal fishes from the tropical Pacific Xenomystax, Ilyophis, new genera. Chlopsis equatorialis, Xenomystax atrarius, Ophisoma prorigerum, Ophisoma macrurum,

Ilyophis brunneus, new species.

(Scientific results of explorations by steamer Albatross.) No. xx1.—Descriptions of thirty-four new species of fishes collected in 1888 and 1889, principally among the Santa Barvaradlislandsmnd inthe Gultrof California 2255-2. oe ooeins oe dcce «coe see eee ae 539-566

Chriolepis, new genus. ;

Raia trachura, Catulus xaniurus, Catulus cephalus, Catulus (brunneus, Bulamia (Platy-

podon) platyrhynchus, Stolephorus cultratus, Myctophum regale, Alepocephalus tenchro-

Til

bic

IV TABLE OF CONTENTS.

P Page. Gilbert, Charles H.—Continued. sus, Porogadus promelas, Siphostoma carinatum, Callechelys peninsule, Atherinops in- sularum, Mugil setosus, Diplectrum sciurus, Mycteroperca pardalis, Bodianus acan- thistius, Upeneus xanthogrammus, Pomacentrus leucorus, Gobius misrodon, Bollmannia ocellata, Bollnannia macropoma, Bollmannia stigmatura, Gobiosoma crescentalis, Chri- olepis minutillus, Gillellus ornatus, Prionotus gymnostethus, Careproctus melanurus, Paraliparis cephalus, Paraliparis mento, Trachyrhynchus helolepis, Macrurus pectoralis, Lycodes diapterus, Symphurus fasciolaris, Antennarius reticularis, new species. Gill, Theodore. On Eleginus of Fischer, otherwise called Tilesia or Pleurogadus......... 303-305 On'the genera abrichthys and Pseudolabrus=.2-.2-==.-2--0--=-<+1es----2-+2 see eene ee 295-404 Note on the genus Hiatula of Lacépéde or Tautoga of Mitchill .-.........-.-.2-2--2..-. 695 Notes on the genus Chonerhinus or Xenopterus..--...------.-.--2..----Jss-<-ceseseess 697-699 On the genus Gnathanacanthus of Bleeker ............ Scie lsreisie aisle slain aia aioe eee eet 701-704 INotes/on’ the, Letracdontoidesa/(Plate:xeexLy) es ssn oe e tae eee oe eee eee eee 705-720 Howard, L. 0. The biology of the Hymenopterous insects of the Family Chalcididaw .... 567-588 Jordan, David Starr. Relations of temperature to vertebre among fishes ..-..--....... 107-120 Lucas, Frederic A. On the structure of the tongue in humming birds (Plate Iv) -----..- 169-172 Mac Farlane, R. Notes on and list of birds and eggs collected in Arctic America, 1861- S665 cess save sie ss cee etaae sce iele wise stars aye lew ena eiereie sega cine oc arene tee eiete ae aene eae Cees 413-446 Ridgway, BR. Description of a new species of Whippoorwill from Costa Rica ...........-. 465-466 Antrostomus rufomaculatus, new species. Notes on some birds from the interior of Honduras........-.--......-.-------------eses 467471 Platypsaris aglaice hypopheus, Pithys bicolor clivascens, new subspecies. Notes ’on'some!Costa-Ricam! birds 2252.5. 0c aese'se ose seceded occeisessaaeeeaseabene-ee 473-178 Platypsaris aglaic obscurus, new subspecies. Scytalopus argentifrons, new species. Note on Pachyrhamphus albinucha, Burmeister. ..-..-.--.-....-----------+-+++--+-+2+++ 479-480 Xenopsaris, new genus. Description of two supposed new forms of Thamnophilus ..............---.----.------- 481 Thamnophilus albicrissus, Thamnophilus trinitatis, new species. Description of a new sharp-tailed sparrow from California ........ oe TSAe ae eee eaee 483-484 Ammodramus caudacutus becki, new subspecies. Notes on the genus Sittasomus of Swainson ....-.-.--.-..-.--- 2 deters: Biss cee anseae 507-510 Sittasomus chapadensis, new species. Shufeldt, R. W. Some observations on the Havesu-Pai Indians (Plate XXY-XXVI)....-.--- 387-390 The:Navajobelt-weaver: (Plate XX Vine ses sec ac sees eae cee a en arctan ae aera eters 391-393 Smith, John B. Contributions toward a monograph of the Noctuidz of temperate North America. Revision of the species of Mamestra. (Plates VIII-XI)..........-.-..-----.---- 197-276 Mamestra determinata, Mamestra desperata, Mamestra invalida, Mamestra u-scripta, Mamestra quadrata, Mamestra circumcincta, Mamestralongiclava, Mamestra orbiculata, new species. : Stearns, Robert E. €. List of North American land and fresh-water shells, received from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, with notes and comments thereon. .-..--.- 95-106 —— List of shells collected on the west coast of South America, principally between lati- tudes 30’ S. and 80° 49’ N., by Dr. W. H. Jones, surgeon, U.S. Navy........-....------- 307-335 Tectarius atyphus, new species. Stejnueger, Leonhard. Description of a neW* species of Chameleon from Kilimanjaro, MAS LOMMCACTICA meee =e sea Seema eee sae Sedo seo eee oee ne dels sis cae Sees e a nace eee 353-354 Chameleo abbotti, new species. Description of a new Scincoid Lizard from East Africa ..........-.-..-----------++++-- 405-406 Lygosoma kilimensis, new species. Description of a new species of lizard from the island San Pedro Martir, Gulf of Cali- PF OLTLUD = oe aioe are oe Se sin nie Seis Ee ae alereie eS CT ee ee ae ae aaa ae eal faa tare tereteltnfetatatote 407-408 Cnemidophorus aes new species. Description of a new North American lizard of the genus Sauromalus..-....--.----.--+-- 409-411

Sauromalus hispidus, new species. Notes on Sceloporus variabilis and its geographical distribution in the United States... 485-488 Notes on Japanese birds contained in the Science College Museum, Imperial University,

FROMAOs, J PAM == «mic ~acleascreies n= esa aia anemia einem late sinle aie tate is cies ite coca tele eee a tal anette 489-498

Notes on the cubital coverts in the birds of Paradise and Bower birds. .....--.---.----- 499-500

————- Notes on some: North: American snakes. §..)-... 22 -< <2 s-esaneee ae nae see ere altel 501-505

On the Snakes of the California genus Lichanura.....-.....---.-------+--+-+++++---++---- 511-515 Stejneger, Leonhard, and Test, Frederick €. Description of a new genus and

species of Tailless Batrachian from tropical America. (Plate Im)......-.- Lat et Seow eens 167-168

Tetraprion, new genus. Tetraprion jordani, new species.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

THXT FIGURES.

TE OG OF SAGA TNR SUIS seas docsesesaneae sbeaace cocdsOaec sa dScesdodcccssEcdace so seo6 aabSbua=

BENG CREAR COLO LUDO VE S| CO ULT, CUCU a armies ate esa oooh mene el eo

METRE LILA UOLOL I? CLULLSNO) OCUC ated tafe pa faerie te Nett ctene tee ovate teliriaratese eh et tol cle ol atslapeintavotel l=) ateelio/- epee ae eter PLATES.

I-II. Rhinoptera steindachneri, Mycteroperca jordani, Hermosilla azurea, Upeneus rath-

buni, Pseudojulis venustus, Auchenopterus asper=.-.---------- 222 - sence nc cew ess

III. New genus and species of Tailless Batrachian from Tropical America, Tetraprion

HOT AMIME LS = corsa s ae aXaie laine feialsl oon ae sins otfemtcl is we eae Aenea ean Mies oa AOS SSeS

Ieee che Lon gnesOf nm min & Bird seeee ae sea ony scien elem etetetse so sees es eee

iV Velev es trAmenicaneM ollus Gai misses cre cere inte cinta eee itisseecthe eee ee

VWeaii—oxclen Genital: StractuneolmMamestnas..-- 2. oaemeeeeeidee eels ec aei ces on sl eenee nee

XII. Harmothée aculeata, new species ......-.......-.-.------ Sen ape rc ets Ee Saeco

PRG IU eee Ea 2C€ OVALE PMO WAS POCIES wiamenio cess Sanwa eee Se seine es - aerate ieee

RMVi DLOP AEN TUAGING, WNE WES PCCIOS = -:07- tos or tots = eles = etares oa Sissi le arayele lo 3 wiereea seis es ee earn

XV. Ophelina agilis and Polydora commensalis, new species -...-...-..-...2------------

NGV AICPA LOLLEDINULCOSA, MOWaSPCClOS =. n= law ace tetocls = sais eee = Poem orice saeins =a oemeeeeet

EXOVElUP el alo pT OCtUs! SOCLELIEGNOWASDEGICR, os loc ois iciatel = s)af= a eines foes ee = cae eo eee eee

XVIII. Ammochares edijficator and Loimia turgida, new species ......--..-...2...---.----

XIX. Panopeus herbstii, Panopeus herbstii (var. obesus), Panopeus validus...-.--...--- ae

XX. Panopeus harttii, P. bermudensis, P. occidentalis, P. dissimilis, P. depressus-.--.

XXI. Panopeus parvulus, P. harristi, P. areolatus, P. crenatus, P. planissinius.-..

XXII. Panopeus packardii, P. transversus, P. angustifrons, P. sayi. P. texanus...---

XXIII. Panopeus dissimilis, P. parvulus, P. depressus, P. packardii, P. sayi, P. texanus, P.

WieyDstii ere UCU Us E KOCCLOLTTOLISH eee ae eieceiniee aera ee eee Sales cnet ee eee

XXIV. Panopeus planissimus, P. serratus, P. harttii, P.wurdemannii, P. ovatus, P. trans-

XXV. XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII.

XXIX. XXX. XXXI. XXXII. XXXII.

XXXIV,

versus, P. planus, P. hemphillii, P. bermudensis, P. harrisii, P. crenatus, P.

ING USUU MONET oret resiseaare actor e artim s arose <aycha slots cae ele Sees eee one Seinas aes AMiaged parol Havesn=bar indians! -.--<se coe oe = se ose sacs Selatan asaneee ane eee AmHayesu-laiLodgein Su-PalCanon Arizona ---s-5-22.-.2 2 5-222 nee ee eee Pern avajonpelt- weaver 2 ro=a.s)sgase0 sete sse ae cece esac Soomewe Oe ee adie ciseeee eee Styptobasis knightiana Cope, Hybodus regularis Cope, Ctenacanthus amblyxiphias

Copeman estce soreness se a ecas soa enccee eceh ee Sac eiae nice See a bie epee LUCERO DEL ALD OVD UDC UO fo seeen Cogdedesnorcccne cancel: cieoeclcccocs mosectesce Macropetalichthys Sullivantii Newb., Holonema sp....-.........------------------- Dinichthys, Titanichthys, Platysomus lacovianus Cope ....-.....--.-.-+++-+-------- EMC EULCHLTEYS NULL GUS 1 COPE: \are cies sisi oie sieie Dae Here cies eer als eefoe eiSaroelae seein Aare tae EUALYSOMUSIDAUN OTIS CONG 5.22 ars sas scies eee a ee aS ce Oe oes eens se eeeyers Ohonerhinus naritus; Chonerhinus naritus, nostril; Crania of Tetraodon, Leiodon or

Monotreta; Arothron or Dilobomycter; Colomesus; Chonerhinus; Canthigaster...-

NV;

Page. 170 i70 701

166

168 172 192 276 302 302 302 H2 302 302 302 386 386 386 386

386

390 390 394

464 464 464 464 464 464

~] to Co

DATES OF PUBLICATION OF ARTICLES.

Nos. 842 to 848, July 16, 1891; 849, 850, July 24; 851, September 26; 852, August 20; 853, August 27; 854, August 29; 855, September 4; 856, September 8; 857, October 12; 858, December 12; 859, December 12; 860, December 12; 861, September 8; 862, 863, August 31; 864, October 27; 865, September 26; 866, December 12; 867, October 12; 868, October 26; 869, October 31; 870, October 22; 871, October 22; 872, October 22; 873, October 27; 874, October 26; 875, October 27; 876, October 31; 877, October 31; 878, 879, November 17; 880, 881, 882, March 28, 1892; 883, March 25, 1892; 884, April 19, 1892; 885, April 19, 1892; 886, April 20, 1892.

VE

Pe OC EAD ENG:s

OF THE

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM

HOR WEE So BVA LS Or:

VOLUME XIV.

A CATALOGUE OF THE FRESH-WATER FISHES OF SOUTH AMERICA

BY Cart H. EIGENMANN AND Rosa S. EIGENMANN.

The present paper is an enumeration of the fishes so far recorded from the streams and lakes of South America, with a few preliminary remarks onthe extent, peculiarity, and origin of the fauna and the division of the neotropics into provinces, An attempt has been made toinelude those marine forms which have been found in the rivers beyond brackish water and to exclude those which probably enter fresh waters, but have not actually been found in any streams. Cvcntral American species are not enumerated.

The aim being to present a synopsis of what has been accomplished rather than a list of the species which in our estimation are valid, all the doubtful species are enumerated and the synonyms of each species are given. All thenames given to South American fishes prior to 1890 are therefore to be found here.

We have endeavored to adopt and incorporate the results of the latest investigations, chiefly those of Giinther, Gill, Cope, Boulenger, Steindachner, and EHigenmann and Higenmann. Since works of a re- visionary character on South American fishes are few, and many of the species have been recorded but once, many changes in the present list will doubtless become necessary. We have critically reviewed about half of the species enumerated. (See bibliography.)

This catalogue was intended to accompany a Catalogue of the Fresh- water Fishes of North America by Dr. D.S. Jordan. Unavoidable circumstances prevented us from completing it as originally planned, and it was thought best to give it the present form. We take pleasure in expressing out thanks to Dr. Theodore Gill for valuable suggestions.

Proceedings National Museum, Vol. XIV—No. 842.

2 FRESH-WATER FISHES OF SOUTH AMERICA—EIGENMANN.

EXTENT OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN FRESH-WATER FAUNA.

There are far more fresh-water fishes in the neotropical than in any other region.! Complete enumerations of the fresh-water fishes of other continents are rare, but the following comparison of the latest lists of European and North American fresh-water fishes with a list of the South American species will show the extent of the South American fauna. Those families which are marine, but whose species enter fresh waters, are marked with an asterisk (*).

SUES = Species. Z| 22 a 2 General distribution of families. | 5 | z FF | HYPEROARTIA. | Lamprey. * Petromyzontide ....... | 3 | 8 | 3 Temperate and arctic regions. - RAL®. | | Electric rays. * Torpedinide -... ...... | sepa oats 1 In most seas. Sting rays. Dasybatide..2.+-2-=-- Domeeers Nene 9 | Warm seas. SELACHOSTOMI. Paddlefish. Polyodontidz.......... | Sbjct dE Sew North America and Asia. GLANIOSTOMI. | Sturgeon. * Acipenserid® —........ | 10 | 6 eee Northern. DIPNOI. | Lungfishes. Lepidosirenide ....-... |heoreiesenl? othe 1; Africa. GINGLYMODI. Gar pike. epidosteldperca-—-2 s4jeeeser Bil seeene North American. HALECOMORPAHI. | ) Bowfin. Amiatidacccce soseenee | Loans IY cee SYMBRANCHIA. Symbranchide#..-..-...- {isczeee | anaes 1 India.

1 Heilprin (Distribution of Animals. International Scientific Series D, Appleton & Co., 1887, p. 79) says: ‘‘ The fresh-water fishes of the Neotropical realm are spe- cifically more numerous than those of any other region, with perhaps the exception of the Holarctic.” The Holarctic is defined as follows (p. 56): ‘‘The Palearctic and Nearctic tracts, in the absence of both positive and negative faunal characters of sufficient importance to separate them from each other, are indisputably linked to- gether, and should constitute but a single region (the Holarctic).” Leaving out of consideration all animals but fishes, there are certainly both negative and positive characters to separate the Palearctic and Nearctic. Mr. Heilprin enumerates the following peculiarities as separating the Nearctic from the Palearctic: The presence in the Nearctic of Catostomide, Centrarchide, Amiatide, Lepidosteide. To these should be added the Hiodontide, Percopside, Am)blyopside, Aphredoderide, Elassomatide, and the peculiar development of the Percide. From an ichthyological standpoint there are certainly positive characters sufficient to separate the Neazctic from the Palearctic.

ss itt i ii i a i a cr re i i i ii ie

| PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 8 a le q = eS | 3 sie.\e open eure Species. a <2 | 4% | General distribution of families, a | ae ts = ees B is lp |4 |a | NEMATOGNATHI. | PAB DTOUINIOO Sees elaiee | aaa aos [een 15 | Sonth American. Diplomyatidie ss. cr sc- ne cis =| sai 1 Chilian. Catfish. Silomdeeeesess-ess-~= 1 25 | 199 Cosmopolitan. Hypophthalmide ......| -....|...-.. 2 South American. Mountain catfish. Pvodid yeeeree ceeer tsnaeell aces | 48] Do. Do. PATONG Le Rete ete seein arenas |- eee |inaeiee's 8 | Do. Mailed catfish. MOLIGATIIA ae see sae ce cose e cee ed or Do. Calliththyidie ¢...-20-|cc2+s|sesase leeks Do. EVENTOGNATHI. Sucker. Catostomidz...........|...-.. G1 Peer North American. Loach. Copitideee sae aac ee eee On eee eae | Asia. Carp. Cyprinide -----..-....% Gleis230) 222 =- | Asia, Africa. Characins. Characinids Oi esecen. |sesees 1 456 | Africa. | : GYMNONOTI. Electric eels. Mieciropnonide--.0-2-|noseeel esos ce 1 | South American. SUCIMOPY Pid << so. 225|. sone | acces | 30 | Do. j | ISOSPONDYLI. Moon-eye. nod antid osen eee = eee ose as Bites | North American. Herring. FClIPeldwessscuscas sees 2 5 | 3 | All seas. : Gizard shad. *SWOTOSOMLUE ae eee. Sel eee eo = 1 | Ae Warm seas. Big-eyed herrin MLO PIG re seen se Lose) cena soos 1 |} 1 | Chiefly in warm seas. OSteoolonsidtern 2. sean teenies eens | 1) Australia. PATA AMIGO Serre eee: [ese oe eeetes 1 Mole phorideae coe es seecnalee seas 8 | All warm seas. Galaxaideacsss.2e 2 eee | ese Soe bese 5 | Tasmania, New Zealand, South America (southern). A MOchitOnidss--.sceeec|acccme| eens el 2 Do. Salmon. salmonids: <2. ..22 122 12 QBiie ashe | Northern. Trout perch. IPercopsid sD -- sy cessace ol eee 1G) emeeee | North American. HAPLOML. | | Blind fish. Amblyopsidi-2..se-.o5- ee c<x | 5 etd North American. Killifish. * Cyprinodontide ....... 3 52 | 29 | Warm seas. Pike. Haoci mys o-e sees cee 1 5 |.....-} Northern, Mud minnow. Wimbridwrccescsessces 1 ie eeeeee XENOMI. Blackfish. DSlind Bee eee se ences lt ee 1 | eases Alaskan, Siberian. ENCHELYCEPHALI. | | Eels. aeAmomilideay ser ccncee sss 2 | ‘lig rere Warm seas. SYNENTOGNATHI. Garfishes. pa Blom peserenc cess 4|aaeeee ae eee | 5 | Warm seas. HEMIBRANCHII. Sticklebacks., * Gasterosteide ......... 3 7 )..--.-| Northern. PERCESOCES. | | Mullet. PAU ENIAD odocs ss cee| tessae| se eese | 3) Warm seas. Silversides. PeALHORIMIG de ems ecis seers 2 2) 33 Do. | PERCOMORPHI. | IP Oly CONGTICI@ 1c cess ais |elsercl| sooeme | 3 Northern South America. Pirate perch. Aphredoderide. behets tee ereteniats | North American. Elassomatide... a ataoee QW ineecas Do. Sunfishes. Centrarchid@..........|.....- BT eee Do. Perches. POT CINGB erin ise sla ciaice 11 cia eeerael Temperate regions of America

| and Europe.

4 FRESH-WATER FISHES OF SOUTH AMERICA—EIGENMANN.

a | - | g & = °° | 2 Deer cca m fogs ai Species. AS lve 2 4 2 General distribution of families. Dit | seen aleve ce ; ey PSsae seo e Cneaine A/a | | PERCOMORPHI—continued. | Sea bass. USOrralid wos. s- essere 1 4 5 Warm seas <i Spanidee eoeccece aoe cu leans ae Lee ee al Do. Croakers. + SlmMld Diacce eee caer ce eeese 1 11 | Do. Cichlids. Cichlideeq222- 2 2e62ce=- (Cee 2 86 | Africa, Asia. Gobies. *Gobiidwe 2 -aaccese ae ae 2 6 15 | Warm seas. Sculpins. *Coutideaere cee cen aee 2h mole | eae | Northern. Toadfish. = Batrachidwcacuse sceecol sete alee 3 | Warm seas. = Blenniidse) = -s- eco. Bullies saeN eee 0. AIG Adi fo scccecieae coe 1 Ty eee as | Northern. HETEROSOMATA. is Flounders. * Pleuronectide ...-..--. 2 | 1 | All seas. | PLECTOGNATHI. | Pufters, * <Tetracdontids:...2--4|-2es 6 | ecterers 1 | Warm seas. aie Total’ cose. eaeeemes net ee oa eae 126 | 587 1, 147 |

It will be seen from the preceding list that, even if one or two hundred names are eliminated as probable synonyms, the preponderance of species is still largely in favor of South America. It must also be borne in mind that perhaps not more than two-thirds of the fishes of South America are now known. Many will doubtless not be discovered until there are resident ichthyologists. Only sixty species of fresh-water fishes have been recorded from the large system of the Rio Magdalena. If this number be compared with the forty species taken from Bean Blossom Creek, in Monroe County, Indiana, a small stream not half a dozen yards wide and which was explored along but one mile of its course, the amount of work left undone in the fresh waters oa South America may be estimated.

From the American portion of the southern zone,' that is, from the whole region south of the La Plata, but eighteen species of fresh-water fishes are known. The headwaters of the La Plata, Magdalena, Ori- noco, and of the tributaries of the Amazons and most of the rivers be- tween the Amazon and the San Francisco are, from an ichthyological standpoint, unknown.

Only half of the collections of the Thayer expedition has, as yet, been examined, and many new forms will doubtless be added whenever the remaining portion is studied.

To the number enumerated here should be added the hundred and fifty species of fresh-water fishes recorded from the Mexican and An- tillean subregions. The number of known species of neotropical fresh- water fishes is therefore nearly 1,300.

' For the limits of this zone, see Giinther, “‘ The Study of Fishes,” p. 248.

vou. XIV] PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 5

RELATIONS OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN FRESH-WATER FAUNA. TO THOSE OF OTHER CONTINENTS.

A striking feature of the South American fauna is the presence of marine forms, such as species of Dasybatide, Tetraodontide, Scienide, Batrachide, etc. These, however, ought not here to be considered, although many of their species live exclusively in fresh waters, since the families of which they are representatives inhabit all warm seas.

If these families are left out of consideration it will be seen from the preceding list that there are but three families common to North and South America. The first of these, the Siluride, is cosmopolitan. The species of Siluridwe found in North America belong to the subfamily Bagrine, while the South American species belong to the subfamilies Tachisurine, Callophysine, Pimelodine, Doradinw, Auchenipterine, and Ageneiosine. Of the subfamilies found in South America, those in ital- ics are enneotropic.* The Tachisurine are found in all tropical seas, and, for the present purpose, should really be classed with the marine fishes. The Pimelodine have a few representatives in Africa.

The second and third families, the Cichlide and Characinida, have each but one representative extending as far north as Texas.

From the foregoing statements it will be noticed that the South American fauna has little in common and small relationship with the fauna of North America. Central America properly belongs to the South American fauna, while southern Mexico is debatable ground. Several species of Pimelodine, Cichlid, and Characinide occur in south- ern Mexico. On the other hand, one species of Bagrinet extends as far south as Guatemala, and anothert is found on the western slope of central Mexico.§ <A species of Lepidosteus, an ennearctic genus, has a representative in the western part of Guatemala.

Leaving out of consideration the family Siluride, which has been discussed above, thereremain eighteen truly fresh-water families, eleven of which are enneotropic. Of the remaining seven families two, Ga- laxtide and Aplochitonide, are found only in the Fuegian region, and have representatives in Tasmania and New Zealand. The other five are distributed as follows :

Lepidosirenide 1 sp.; Africa 2 sp.

Symbranchide 1 sp.; India 2 sp.

Characinide 456 sp.; Africa 86 sp.

Osteoglosside 1 sp.; Australial sp.; East Indian Archipelago 1 sp.

Cichlide 86 sp.; Africa 29 sp.; India 2 sp.

* Enneotropic, ennearctic, etc., formed like endemic, the en having the force of pe- culiar to.”

t Ictalurus meridionalis (Giinther).

t Ietalurus dugesi (Bean).

§ Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque) has been recorded from Surinam. As this species has not been taken during the last 30 years it is perhaps wisest to doubt the correct- ness of this record.

6 PRESH-WATER FISHES OF SOUTH AMERICA—EIGENMANN.

It will be seen that all but two of the tropical American families not peculiar to America are found in Africa.

There is no species of tropical American fishes known to inhabit any other continent, and but two genera, Osteoglossum and Symbranchus, are found elsewhere. It is a surprising fact that, although there exists the - great similarity between the African and the South American faunas already pointed out, these two genera are not found in Africa. Sym- branchus inhabits South America and India, Osteoglossum South Amer- ica, Australia, and Hast Indian Archipelago.*

We have already called attention to the fact that but one of the South American subfamilies of Silwride is found elsewhere. The Pimelodine reaches its greatest development in South America (63 species), while in Africa there are but two genera (4 species).

Of the ten subfamilies of the Characinide fourt are enneotropic, three are enafric,¢ and three § are common to both.

THE PECULIARITIES OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN FAUNA.||

As is usual with fresh-water faunas the great majority of South Amer- ican fishes belong to the Physostomous Teleosts. In the words of Wallace: Richness combined with isolation is the predominant fea- ture ot Neotropical Zodlogy, and no other region can approach it in the number of its peculiar family and generic types.”

The families peculiar to South America are: (1) Diplomystide, (2) Aspredinide, (3) Hypophthalmide, (4) Pygidiide, (5) Argitide, (6) Lori- cariide, (7) Callichthyide, (8) Gymnotide, (9) Sternopygide, (10) Poly- centride. The first seven belong to the degenerate order Nematognathi. The absence of scales, imperfect maxillary, codssified parietals and supraoccipital, the absence of subopercle and codssified anterior verte- bree, distinguish this order. With very few exceptions the species of this order are provided with barbels, which, in some species of Pime- lodine, are greatly specialized, being much longer than the whole fish.

The Diplomystide, of which but a single species is known, is undoubt- edly the lowest of the Nematognathi and is a remnant of the primitive

*Perhaps attention shonld again be called to the Siluride. The genus Tachisurus has representatives in the fresh waters of South America, Africa, and India. It is, however, a marine genus.

t Erythrinine, Curimatine, Anostomatine, Serrasalmonine.

t Citharinine, Distichodine, Ichthyoborine.

§ Crenuchine, Tetragonopterinw, Hydrocyonine.

|| We wish to call attention to a fact noticed while studying the Nematognathi. The southern representatives ofseveral genera or evenof thesame species have not infre- quently more rays than the Amazonian forms. All the specimens of Pseudopimelodus cungaro recorded from the Amazon have six dorsal rays, while three of the specimens from the south have seven dorsal rays. All the Amazonian species of the genus Rham- dia have six dorsal rays, while the southern forms of the same genus frequently have seven or eight; one peculiar to the La Plata has six to nine, and another confined to the San Francisco has ten rays. We have not followed this subject in detail and do ~ not know whether the increase in rays is correlated with an increase of vertebrae.

cor PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. q

.

stock. The maxillary, in this family, bears teeth and forms part of the mouth border. Only two short barbels are present. In all other families of this order the maxillary is vestigiary, its sole function being to serve as a basis for the primary barbel. Through the Tachisurine the Diplo- mystide are very closely related to the Stiluride.

Through Ageneiosus the Hypophthalmide are closely related to the Siluride. |

The Aspredinide are highly specialized and are evidently an early offspring from the common stock. :

The Pygidiide are the mountain forms of the Siluride, but have under- gone many important modifica ions.

The Argiide are the mountain forms of the Loricartide.

The Aspredinide are the most specialized of the Nematognathi. The mouth and the air- bladder are greatly modified, while the body is covered with small bony plates.

The Callichthyide are in some sense intermediate pereocn the Silu- ride and the Loricariide. They have a normal mouth and the body covered with two series of bony plates.

The Electrophoride ana Sternopygide constitue the order Gymnonoti.

The Gymnotide diter from the Sternopygide in being naked and in possessing an electric organ. The members of both families are long, eel-shaped fishes without a true dorsal fin, without ventral fins, and having a very long anal fin,

None of the Percomorphi are peculiarly South American, the only re- maining family being the Polycentrid@, whose position in the system is not definitely determined.

Of the families having a wider distribution, but reaching, in South America, a peculiar development, must be mentioned the marine forms, which, in other regions, do not ascend much beyond brackish water, but which here are found even at a great distance from the sea. Chief of these are the Dasybatide, Belonide, Mugilide, Scienide, Batrachidea, Pleuronectida, Tetraodontide.

Of especial interest is Lepidosiren paradoxa, which represents an an- cient order of fishes.

Tie Siluride here reach their greatest perfection, forty-eight genera of one hundred and ninety-nine species being found in fresh waters, while several species inhabit the surrounding seas. They are gener- aliy inhabitants of the low lands. The peculiarities of the Pimelodine

_are the remote nares, which are not provided with a barbel, and the

great development of the maxillary barbels. The Callophysine are Pimelodine with incisor-like teeth. The Doradine are provided with a lateral series of bony plates. The Ageneiosine have a peculiarly modified air-bladder. The Auchenipterine are very closely related to the Agenelosine, but

- possess a normal air- bladder.

8 FRESH-WATER FISHES OF SOUTH AMERICA——EIGENMANN.

The Characinide also here attain their greatest development. There ‘are sixty-one genera of four hundred and thirty-five species. The Erythrinine are without an adipose fin.

The Curimatine are edentulous, or have the teeth feebly developed.

They differ from the Citharinine (African) chiefly in having a shorter dorsal fin.

The Anostomatine have a short dorsal fin, narrow gill-opening, and remote nares, the teeth being well developed.

The Tetragonopterine and Hydrocyonine differ in the character of the teeth, the former having broad notched, the latter conical teeth. ‘The dorsal fin is rather short in both. Both reach their greatest develop- ment in South America. There are in South America eighteen genera of oue hundred and fifty-nine species of Tetragonopterine and but four genera of twenty-nine species in Africa. Of the Hydrocyonine there are eleven genera of fifty-four species against two genera and five species in Africa.

The Crenuchine consist of two genera of one species each, found re- spectively in South America and Africa.

The Serrasalmonine are characterized by the large teeth and serrated belly.

The Cichlidw is another family which reaches its greatest develop- ment in South America.

THE ORIGIN OF THE SOUTH AMERICAN FAUNA.

The species of marine families need, in this connection, only a pass- ing notice. Many of the species live habitually in the sea and enter rivers only occasionally. The families having strictly fresh-water species or genera are the Dasybatide, Cyprinodontide, Belonide, Mugilida, Serranide, Scienide, Batrachide, and Tetraodontide. Some of these, as the genus Orestias, are evidently of very long standing. This genus of four species confined to Lake Titicaca was evidently long ago—long before the Andes had reached their present height—separated from the ordinary forms inhabiting brackish water. Other genera belonging to this category are: Protistius Cope, a genus intermediate between the Mugilide and the Cyprinodontide found in the Peruvian Andes at an elevation of 12,000 fee’, and Gastropterus Cope (Mugilide) from the Pacific slope of Peru at an altitude of 7,500 feet.

The genera Percichthys and Percilia have also been long enough separated from their marine ancestors to become generically distinct.

The fresh-water genera aud species of Belonida, Scicenide, Batra- chide, and Tetraodontide live chiefly in the lower courses of rivers and are probably older additions from the sea.

The Lepidosirenide, a family of few genera and species, is evidently now in its last stages. No fossils of Lepidosiren have yet been found. The Dipnoi made their appearance in the Triassic (Permian; Bohemia, Texas). ‘*Remains of Ceratodus have been found throughout the en-

| PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 9

tire series of Mesozoic deposits from the Trias to the Cretaceous, inclu- sive.” Their distribution has evidently become limited in later times and the living members may be looked upon as but remnants of an - older fauna. .

The number of species of the Symbranchide is also quite limited, while their geographic range is very large. Nearly all such cases are to be explained by a greater abundance and a wide distribution in former times. The living species enter brackish water, while one genus is strictly marine. Dr. Giinther says of this fish (Study of Fishes, p. 226): ‘The occurrence and wide distribution in Tropical America of a fish of the Indian family Symbranchide, which is not only con- generic with, but also most closely allied to, the Indian Symbranchus bengalensis, offers one of those extraordinary anomalies in the distri- bution of animals of which no satisfactory explanation can be given at present.”

The present is evidently the age of the Nematognathi and the Hven- tognathi. Probably all the species of Nematognathi of South America are autochthons of that continent. <A pretty complete series still exists without taking into account any species of other regions. They are chiefly lower forms, although some of them have reached a high state of specialization in a certain direction. Their evolution has already been discussed by us in various places and it is not necessary to repeat all the considerations here.

The peculiarities of the Diplomystide have been pointed out above. We must conclude from the presence of dentiferous maxillaries and the absence of all the barbels except the maxillary,* either that this family represents the ancient Nematognathi, or that it is a reversion to the ancient forms. The former conclusion seems preferable. Silurid@ have been found in the eocene Tertiary of Europe, while the Wasatch beds, the lowest Tertiary of North America, have yielded several species of a genus (Rhineastes) probably related to the Pimelodine, from which

* The value placed on the maxillaries can not be questioned, while the value placed