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REPORT OF THE U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1924

MAIN ENTRANCE, NATURAL HISTORY BUILDING, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM

REPORT ON THE PROGRESS AND CON- DITION OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1924

S TY 229823 whe

WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1924

ADDITIONAL COPIES

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON, D.C.

65 CENTS PER Oe Ne ; 7

Unitep Srares Nationat Museum, Unpver Direcrion oF THE SMITHSONIAN INsTITUTION, Washington, D. C., September 30, 1924. Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith a report upon the present condition of the United States National Museum and upon

the work accomplished in its various departments during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1924. }

Very respectfully, WiLurAM DEC. RAvENEL, Administrative Assistant to the Secretary, In charge of the United States National Museum. Dr. Cuartes D. Watcort, Secretary, Smithsonian Institution.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page. Scatter faerie yas Gums Mp ew yah WRC ene aI ae oe bee ee VII BUA naA = T50) CLLR teh ON amen er oe ee EASA ee IOUS eg Nt ee 1 Operations of the year: ANY Oy NOTTS TENET ENCOP TUS) Ls Este NM, STs ee RS a Pe ce AL Se ce 3 Collections ______ 2 SID cc SIE em SUA el Ne ee Ee MA OSI Hees: 4 Service to the publiec___________ rahe es EP et Sea NE ene ge 10 ASIST HOES ak a TE ER aS Bn tet NOL NA MT NS 15 Publications_______ Be As PRR 27008 SIE taY Be SMU eee eee VE 16 SEATON ESIC SMa ABCD a TS NSS UNG IGN eH ART ad Ue og DN gy Uae JO SAN 17 Photosraphich laboratory. 2s ee ee ee i ee 18 iMilGine swan dipe quinone mts Mune a Ne eh es ag 18 “Meetings CHA ONCG 1G VSN CXS Oy cay OATS a ee SU a ea cece gs a pg lg eR 22 Changes in organizations and staff_________§__________-_ ee Detailed reports on the collections: Department of anthropology, by Walter Hough, head curator_______ 35 Department of biology, by Leonhard Stejneger, head curator________ 43 Department of geology, by George P. Merrill, head curator__________ 73 Department of arts and industries, W. deC. Ravenel, director Mineral and mechanical technology, by Carl W. Mitman_______ 89 Textiles, medicine, woods, organic chemistry, and food, by F. L. INET ys Tere ag RS Se NaCl NEU ay EN cd ee URE ONY gee NAL ly 97 Graphie arts, by R. P. Tolman_________ eA ate euetledhh SN MOG Division of history, by T. T. Belote, curator____________________-___ De ENS Caer OL NC CESS TOM SU ah mle Gres NA ales NS BU a Se UN AN he Mar NL eel lia Bl 131 List of papers based on the National Collections________ A ee 187

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STAFF OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM

[June 30, 1924]

CHARLES D. Watcortt, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, keeper ew officio. WILLIAM DEC. RAVENEL, Administrative assistant to the Secretary, in charge of the United States National Museum.

SCIENTIFIC STARE

DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY : Walter Hough, head curator.

Division of Ethnology: Waiter Hough, curator; J. W. Fewkes, collaborator ; Arthur P. Rice, collaborator.

Section of Musical Instruments: Hugo Worch, custodian.

Division of American Archeology: Neil M. Judd, curator; R. G. Paine, aid.

Division of Old World Archeology: I. M. Casanowicz, assistant curator.

Division of Physical Anthropology: AleS Hrdlitka, curator; P. C. Van Natta, aid.

Associates in Historic Archeology: Paul Haupt, Cyrus Adler.

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY: Leonhard Stejneger, head curator; James H. Benedict, assistant eurator.

Division of Mammals: Gerrit S. Miller, jr., curator.

Division of Birds: Robert Ridgway, curator; Charles W. Richmond, asso- ciate curator; J. H. Riley, aid; Bradshaw H. Swales, honorary assistant eurator; Hdward J. Brown, collaborator.

Division of Reptiles and Batrachians: Leonhard Stejneger, curator; Doris M. Cochran, -aid.

Division of Fishes: Barton A. Bean, assistant curator.

Division of Insects: lL. O. Howard, honorary curator; J. M. Aldrich, asso- ciate curator; William Schaus, honorary assistant curator; B. Preston Clark, collaborator.

Section of Hymenoptera: S. A: Rohwer, custodian; W. M. Mann, as- sistant custodian.

Section of Myriapoda: O. F. Cook, custodian.

Section of Diptera: J. M. Aldrich, in charge; Charles T. Greene, assist- ant custodian.

Section of Muscoid Diptera: C. H. T. Townsend, custodian.

Section of Coleoptera: HE. A. Schwarz, custodian.

Section of Lepidoptera: Harrison G. Dyar, custodian.

Section of Orthoptera: A. N. Caudell, custodian.

Section of Hemiptera: W. L. McAtee, acting custodian.

Section of Forest Tree Beetles: A. D. Hopkins, custodian.

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VIII REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1924

DEPARTMENT OF BIoLOoGy—Continued.

Division of Marine Invertebrates: Waldo L. Schmitt, curator; C. R. Shoe- maker, assistant curator; James O. Maloney, aid; H. K. Harring, cus- todian of the rotatoria; Mrs. Harriet Richardson Searle, collaborator ; Max M. Ellis, collaborator.

Division of Mollusks: William H. Dall, honorary curator; Paul Bartsch, curator; William B. Marshall, assistant curator; Mary Breen, collab- orator.

Section of Helminthological Collections: C. W. Stiles, custodian; B. H. Ransom, assistant custodian.

Division of Hchinoderms: Austin H. Clark, curator.

Division of Plants (National Herbarium): Frederick V. Colville, honorary curator; W. R. Maxon, associate curator; J. N. Rose, associate curator; P. C. Standley, associate curator; Hmery C. Leonard, aid; Ellsworth P. Killip, aid.

Section of Grasses: Albert S. Hitchcock, custodian.

Section of Cryptogamic Collections: O. F. Cook, assistant curator.

Section of Higher Algae: W. T. Swingle, custodian.

Section of Lower Fungi: D. G. Fairchild, custodian.

Section of Diatoms: Albert Mann, custodian.

Associates in Zoology: C. Hart Merriam, W. L. Abbott, Mary J. Rathbun, David Starr Jordan.

Associate Curator in Zoology: Hugh M. Smith.

Associate in Botany: John Donnell Smith.

Associate in Marine Sediments: T. Wayland Vaughan.

Collaborator in’ Zoology: Robert Sterling Clark.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY:

George P. Merrill, head curator.

Division of Physical and Chemical Geology (systematic and applied) : George P. Merrill, curator; H. V. Shannon, assistant curator.

Division of Mineralogy and Petrology: ¥. W. Clarke, honorary curator; W. F. Foshag, assistant curator; Frank L. Hess, custodian of rare metals and rare earths.

Division of Stratigraphic Paleontology: R. 8S. Bassler, curator; Charles E. Resser, associate curator; Jessie G. Beach, aid.

Section of Invertebrate Paleontology: T. W. Stanton, custodian of Mesozoic collection; William H. Dall, associate ¢urator of Cenozoic collection. :

Section of Paleobotany: David White, associate curator; F. H. Knowl- ton, custodian of Mesozoic plants; Edwin R. Pohl, aid.

Division of Vertebrate Paleontology: Charles W. Gilmore, curator; James W.. Gidley, assistant curator of mammalian fossils.

Associates in Paleontology: Frank Springer, H. O. Ulrich.

Associate in Petrology: Whitman Cross.

DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND INDUSTRIES?

William deC. Ravenel, director.

Divisions of Mineral and Mechanical Technology: Carl W. Mitman, curator ; Paul HE. Garber, aid; Chester G. Gilbert, honorary curator of mineral technology.

Associate in Mineral Technology: Samuel S. Wyer.

Division of Textiles: Frederick L. Lewton, curator; Mrs. EH. W. Rosson, aid.

Section of Wood Technology: William M. N. Watkins, assistant curator.

REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1924 Ix

DEPARTMENT OF ARTS AND INDUSTRIES—Continued. Division of Medicine: Charles Whitebread, assistant curator. Division of Graphic Arts: R. P. Tolman, assistant curator; Ralph C. Smith, aid. Section of Photography: A. J. Olmsted, custodian. Loeb Collection of Chemical Types: O. EK. Roberts, jr., curator. DIVISION oF HISTORY: T. T. Belote, curator; Charles Carey, aid; Mrs. C. L. Manning, philat- elist.

ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF

Chief of correspondence and documents, H. 8. Bryant. Superintendent of buildings and labor, J. S. Goldsmith. Hditor, Marcus Benjamin.

Engineer, C. R. Denmark.

Disbursing agent, N. W. Dorsey.

Photographer, A. J. Olmsted.

Property clerk, W. A. Knowles.

Assistant librarian, N. P. Scudder.

153871—24——_2

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REPORT ON THE PROGRESS AND CONDITION OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1924

By WILLIAM DEC. RAVENEL,

Administrative Assistant to the Secretary, In charge of the United States National Museum

INTRODUCTION

The Congress of the United States in the act of August 10, 1846, founding the Smithsonian Institution recognized that an opportu- nity was afforded, in carrying out the design of Smithson for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, to provide for the custody of the museum of the Nation. To this new establishment was, therefore, intrusted the care and development of the National Collections. At first the cost of maintaining the Museum was paid from the Smith- sonian income; then for a time the Government bore a share, but since 1877 Congress has provided for the expenses of the Museum.

The museum idea was fundamental in the organic act establishing the Smithsonian Institution, which was based upon a 12 years’ dis- cussion in the Congress and the advice of the most distinguished , scientific men, educators, and intellectual leaders of the Nation during the years 1834-46. It is interesting to note how broad and comprehensive were the views which actuated the Congress in deter- mining the scope of the Museum, a fact especially remarkable when it is recalled that at that date no museum of considerable size existed in the United States, and the museums of England and of the Conti- nent of Europe were still to a large extent without a developed plan, although containing many rich collections.

The Congress which passed the act of foundation enumerated as within the scope of the Museum “all objects of art and of foreign and curious research and all objects of natural history, plants, and geological and mineralogical specimens belonging to the United States,” thus indicating the Museum at the very outset as one of the widest range and at the same time as the Museum of the United States. It was also appreciated that additions would be necessary to

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the collections then in existence, and provision was made for their increase by the exchange of duplicate specimens, by donations, and by other means.

The maintenance of the Museum was long ago assumed by Con- gress, the Institution taking upon itself only so much of the neces- sary responsibility for the administration of this and subsequent additions to its activities as would weld them into a compact whole, which together form a unique agency for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, for the direction of research, for cooperation with departments of the Government and with universities and scien- tific societies in America, and likewise afford a definite correspond- ent to all scientific institutions and men abroad who seek inter- change of views with men of science in the United States.

Since 1846 the only material changes in the scope of the Na- tional Museum have been (1) the addition of a department of American history, intended to illustrate by an appropriate assem- blage of objects, the lives of distinguished personages, important. events, and the domestic life of the country from the colonial period to the present time, and (2) provision in 1920 for the separate admin- istration of the National Gallery of Art as a coordinate unit under the Smithsonian Institution. From 1906 to 1920 the Gallery was administered as the department of fine arts of the Museum.

The development of the Museum has been greatest in those sub- jects which the conditions of the past three-quarters of a century have made most fruitful—the natural history, geology, ethnology, and archeology of the United States—supplemented by many eol- lections from other countries. The opportunities for acquisition in these directions have been mainly brought about through the activi- ties of the scientific and economic surveys of the Government, many of which are the direct outgrowths of earlier explorations, stimu- lated or directed by the Smithsonian Institution. The Centennial Exhibition of 1876 afforded the first great opportunity for estab- lishing a department of the industrial arts, of which the fullest advantage was taken. The historical and the aircraft series have been greatly augmented since 1918 by large collections illustrative of the World War.

OPERATIONS OF THE YEAR APPROPRIATIONS

The maintenance of the National Museum for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1924, was provided for in the following regular items of appropriation carried in the executive and independent offices act approved February 13, 1923:

Preservation of collections. 27s (es eee eee $312, 500 Hurniture ands fixtures! S34 Vek. 5 hie ee Ets -- 20,000 Heating | ands lighting rive bes sd eit Pee ears £49 70, 000 Building Tepains 6s 9 eee ee, GREE Ss Season ye nes oe ee 10, 000 BOOKS 2s a erie eae MRS ier ee OOS ee 2, 000 SES OS EU Gur oe rte StS we eee Net Le ceo a tn i ie Nabe 500 Prinbine and", hindine! kes vee hw ee ee ee ee 37, 500

452, 500

In addition a special item of $79,896 for increase of compensa- tion of employees, or bonus, makes available a total appropriation of $532,396.

In 1916 the appropriation of the Museum for all purposes was $426,000. Since 1916 the Museum has increased its exhibition space by the acquisition of the Aircraft Building, has materially enlarged the scope of its collections in arts and industries and in history, and has received over two and a quarter million additional specimens, besides assuming certain definite responsibilities for the guarding and upkeep of the Freer Building. As can be readily seen the differ- ence in the appropriations of 1916 and 1924 hardly covers the added cost of maintaining the buildings and guarding the collections, leav- ing little or nothing toward providing expert assistance needed in carrying out the fundamental requirement of the classification of the added collections. The growth of the Museum in all directions con- tinues to be increasingly restricted by its limited finances. Econo- mies of all kinds are resorted to in making the appropriation pro- vide first for the safe-keeping of the collections and then for their classification and exhibition.

In addition to the Government appropriations, the Museum has profited this year, as heretofore, by the income from the Frances Lea Chamberlain fund available for building up the Isaac Lea col- lection of gems and gem material and the Isaac Lea collection of mollusks, and by the income from the Morris Loeb fund in further-

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ance of the Loeb collection of chemical types. The value of a defi- nite sum annually available to systematically fill the more glaring gaps in the series is more fully appreciated when it is recalled that the Museum collections in all lines have been dependent almost wholly upon gifts and upon Government and other explorations for _their growth.

COLLECTIONS

The total number of specimens received by the Museum during the year was 362,942. This was considerably over the average during the past 15 years (332,429), and exceeded numerically by over 70 per cent the receipts of the year 1923. Received in 1,736 separate accessions, the specimens added, during the year were classified and assigned as follows: To anthropology, 2,859; zoology, 128,248; botany, 62,229; geology and mineralogy, 5,042; paleontology, 154,879; mineral and mechanical technology, 638; textiles, wood technology, organic chemistry, foods, and medicine, 3,375; graphic arts, 771; Loeb col- lection of chemical types, 27; and history, 5,874. Additional mate- rial to the extent of 1,187 lots, chiefly geological, was received for special examination and report.

The distribution of duplicates aggregated 27,992 specimens besides 92 pounds of material in bulk for blowpipe analyses. Of these, 19,464 specimens and the blowpipe material were sent out as ex- ‘changes for which the Museum has or will receive a return, and the remaining 8,528 specimens were distributed as gifts for educational purposes. The latter included 10 regular or previously prepared sets illustrating rock weathering and soil formation aggregating 210 specimens, 19 sets of ores and minerals aggregating 1,615 speci- mens, and 14 sets of mollusks aggregating 2,086 specimens, a total of 3,911. The other donations comprised sets and individual specimens to meet special needs. Nearly 17,000 specimens and some 24 pounds of material in bulk were lent during the year to specialists elsewhere for examination and study.

The increment this year is notable not only because of the increase in numbers, but also because of its scientific value. It is particularly rich in type specimens and in other specially desired material, filing gaps and otherwise strengthening the collections in many lines. For instance, B. H. Swales by his generous gift of 201 bird skins added 183 species and 4 genera previously unrepresented in the Museum. Such acquisitions immensely increase the scientific value of the collections.

An unusual number of explorations and expeditions, undertaken by other governmental agencies and by private institutions and individuals, benefitted the Museum this year. Biological and botani-

REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1924 5

cal explorations in North America, Central America, South America, Asia, and the islands of the sea have added much desired material representing the fauna and flora of those regions, while productive geological field work was carried on within the borders of our own continent. .

The biological accessions greatly surpass those of the years imme- diately preceding, both in numbers and in scientific importance. The outstanding biological acquisition was the donation by Dr. J. M. Aldrich, associate curator of insects, of his private collection of nearly 45,000 specimens of dipterous flies, representing 4,145 named species and many unnamed, with type material in 534 species. All the insect types in the custody of the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture were given to the National Museum, and it is hoped other States will likewise more and more assist in the building up of the National Collections. Similar cooperation from a number of State institutions and scientific establishments has hitherto advanced the geological collections, but the action of Pennsylvania constitutes a precedent in the biological field. Types deposited in the National Museum are more accessible to specialists than when housed in State and private institutions, and are much safer, as there is Jess likeli- hood of change of policy.

Activities in China resulted in comprehensive biclogical collec- tions received through the liberality of Dr. W. L. Abbott and Col. R. 8. Clark, comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, etc., collected by Charles M. Hoy and Arthur de C. Sowerby, respectively; through the generosity of Rev. D. C. Graham, whose collections from Szech- wan included many topotypes; and through the gift of the National Geographic Society from expeditions under F. R. Wulsin and under ‘Dr. J. F. Rock. Mr. Wulsin during 1923 reached the famous Tibetan Lake Kokoran, but the collections from that locality have not yet arrived at the Museum. An interesting biological collection from Siam, made and contributed by Dr. Hugh M. Smith, is par- ticularly important as linking up collections already in the Museum from the Malay Archipelago and Peninsula with those of the coun- tries farther north.

Dr. W. L. Abbott during his expedition to the island of Santo Domingo procured for the Museum a series of skins, skeletons, and embryos representing a genus of rodents which had not been found alive for nearly 100 years, also large numbers of plants, reptiles, and amphibians. Dr. C. D. Walcott’s Canadian expedition, Dr. Casey A. Wood’s visit to the Fiji Islands, Dr. T. D. A. Cockerell’s expedition to eastern Siberia, Dr. Paul Bartsch’s trip to the Ba- hames, and Gerrit S. Miller’s visit to the Lesser Antilles also added materially to the collections. The National Herbarium was greatly

6 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1924

enriched from tropical America by the explorations of Dr. A. S. Hitchcock in Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, of Paul C. Standley in the Canal Zone and Costa Rica, and of Dr. William R. Maxon in Panama, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua.

The geological additions were unusual in number and in value for both exhibition and study. The paleontological collections were the chief beneficiaries, the most noteworthy of the accessions being the material for a skeletal mount of a large dinosaur from the Dinosaur National Monument, Utah—exceeding in exhibition value any geological acquisition of recent years—and the Edgar E. Teller and the George M. Austin collections of fossils. The former col- lection, comprising over 100,000 Paleozoic fossils, was the gift of Mrs. Teller in memory of her husband; the latter collection of over 25,000 early Silurian invertebrate fossils from Clinton County, Ohio, represented the life work in that field of Dr. George M. Austin, the donor. The economic collections were increased by Canadian nickel and silver ores acquired through Frank L. Hess, custodian of rare metals and rare earths, and by copper-nickel-silver ores donated by the Royal Ontario Museum of Mineralogy. Dia- mond-bearing rocks received through the assistance of H. D. Miser made possible a more comprehensive exhibit of the occurrence of the diamond than heretofore shown. Good exhibition material, both economic and mineral, resulted from the continued activities of Victor C. Heikes.

An unusual meteoric iron from San Juan County, N. Mex., formed the most interesting accession to the meteorite collection, although an iron from Chile, a stone from Kansas, and small quan- tities of other individuals from Spain and Australia added new falls and finds.

Col. Washington A. Roebling was the chief contributor to the mineral collections; besides donating material, he supplied funds for the purchase of new minerals. Radium-bearing minerals from the Belgian Congo and a number of rare species new to the collections, received as gifts and exchanges, are also worthy of note. A number of cut gems were added to the Isaac Lea collection through pur- chases from the Frances Lea Chamberlain fund. The study collec- tion in mineralogy is reported now as over 80 per cent complete as to species represented.

A petrographic reference series of rocks numbering some 2,000 specimens, thought to be without doubt the most important collec- tion from a scientific standpoint now in existence, was transferred to the Museum by the United States Geological Survey.

Collections of Cambrian, Ordovician, and Silurian invertebrates were made by Secretary Walcott and members of the staff of the

REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1924 7

Museum, and a quantity of foreign material was acquired through gifts and exchanges. <A slab of fossil footprints from the Triassic shales of Virginia, received through the courtesy of F. C. Littleton, was added to the exhibition series.

Ethnological material collected in the Philippines by the late Capt. E. Y. Miller was donated by Mrs. Florence G. Miller, and South American Indian relics were contributed by D. S. Bullock. In American archeology should be mentioned an especially valuable collection of, ancient decorated earthenware bowls from Mimbres Valley, N. Mex., transferred from the Bureau of American Ethnology, and a loan by Victor J. Evans of excellent ancient Casas Grandes pottery. Prehistoric antiquities from ancient sites in France, Bel- gium, and Germany, collected by Dr. AleS Hrdlicka, enriched the Old World archeological series. To the large series illustrating the development of the pianoforte which he is building up in the Museum, Hugo Worch added three rare instruments. In physical anthropology the most notable receipt was a large number of skeletal remains from early historic Arikara Indian village sites near Mobridge, S. Dak. An exhibit illustrating the most important relics of ancient man and showing in part the field of man’s physical varia- tions was installed in the west north range, first floor, of the Natural History Building. The subject of physical anthropology had before been but inconspicuously illustrated in the exhibition halls.

The glass industry exhibit was brought considerably closer to com- pletion through the generosity of the Corning Glass Works in sup- plying two models of recent types of melting furnaces and typical examples of glassware. A complete working unit of the Strowger automatic telephone system, contributed by the Automatic Electric Co., enabled the Museum to equip an exhibition case with three telephone instruments which the visitor may operate and at the same time observe the functioning of the various parts., The ad- vance in motor construction was illustrated by the donation by the Cadillac Motor Co. of one of its first automobiles, made in 1903, and a chassis of its 1923 model, the latter being so Leatoned as to display parts ordinarily hidden on view.

The monoplane, Fokker 7-2, which flew in May, 1923, from New York to San Francisco in a pnts flight of less than 27 hours, was added to the aircraft exhibit, as was also a heliocopter type of air- plane successfully used in 1923 by Emile Berliner and his son at College Park, Md. ‘The watercraft collections were materially enhanced by models of the steamships Leviathan and Empress of Russia, the latter one of the vessels of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. plying between Vancouver and the Orient.

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Through cooperation of national trade associations, large series of industrial specimens were added illustrating every branch of rubber manutacture, the manufacture of leather and shoes, and the prepa- ration and dyeing of seal, muskrat, and rabbit skins. New chemical compounds to enrich the Loeb collection of chemical types came from Government bureaus and from private chemists. Other exhibits donated show the manufacture and use of new material from the field of industrial chemistry and include synthetic plastics and hot- molded and cold-molded compositions having high dielectric proper- ties. Further chemical accessions include glues, coal-tar dyes, and artificial silk. The textile collections were augmented by fibers, silk and cotton dress and drapery fabrics, hand-woven textiles, hand looms, and a commercial braiding machine. To the collections showing the - importance of wood and the industries based thereon, were added products of the hardwood distillation industry, veneered doors, sporting goods made of wood, and paper-pulp products. The col- lections in the division of medicine were enlarged by 25 models showing advances in sanitary science, specimens of materia medica, and objects associated with the history of medicine in America.

In the graphic arts collection no entirely complete new exhibit was received, but important additions to existing exhibits were made, especially of letterpress printing and of etching. The most impor- tant, doubtless, was Miss Beatrice S. Levy’s gift of three aquatint plates for her color print, White House by the Sea, which added a new method to the technical series. Another especially desirable ad- dition was probably the first motion-picture camera ever made, one invented by Wallace Goold Levison in 1887.

An important innovation this year was the receipt of matterial for a period room. Mrs. Gertrude D. Ritter, who is interested in the preservation of the atmosphere of the early settlers of our coun- try, contributed an American colonial room, including not only the furniture and furnishings but even the pine woodwork brought in its entirety from an old New England home. ‘This is the beginning, it is expected, of Mrs. Ritter’s plan for the assembling of the furnish- ings of an entire colonial home, to be displayed in a house of colonial style to be erected for the purpose in proximity to the present Museum buildings. In the meantime this unit has been provided for in the Natural History Building—in one of the foyer rooms, which has been entirely transformed. It is the first period room to be permanently installed in the Museum and is attracting favorable notice.

The collection of costumes of the ladies of the White House, which has proved so attractive, was increased this year by an evening gown worn in the White House by Mrs. Warren G. Harding and the dress

REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1924 9

worn by Mrs. Benjamin Harrison at the inaugural ball in 1889. Pis- tols belonging to Maj. Gen. Charles Lee, of the Continental Army, and to Maj. Jacob Morris; the camp cups of Gen. Wayne Anthony; a lock of hair of Napoleon I; and a silver tureen and platter pre- sented to Hon. James R. Mann by Members of the United States House of Representatives, Sixty-fifth Congress, were among the ad- ditions to the biographical series.

The historical objects in the west north range of the Arts and In-

dustries Building were early in the year moved elsewhere, and the hall was installed with the numismatic collections of the Museum, including the large numismatic collection received in 1923 from the Philadelphia Mint. This necessitated the rearrangement of a large part of the exhibition collections in the division of history, but the results obtained are very satisfactory. - Special loan exhibitions—Eleven special loan exhibitions in con- nection with the work of the division of graphic arts are enumerated in the report of the assistant curator in charge of that division. Two other temporary loan exhibitions deserve mention.

An exhibit of industrial work done by Washington children on the municipal playgrounds during the summer of 1923 was installed on the east side of the south gallery in the Arts and Industries Building on October 25, 1923, and remained on exhibition for five weeks. More than 1,500 objects made on the playgrounds by chil- dren from 4 to 15 years of age were shown, the exhibit comprising drawings, modeling, woodwork, basketry, sewing, knitting, crochet- ing, embroidery, oS and paper work.

A similar exhibition of the work done on a few pier erat: was held in the National Museum in 1915, since which time the movement has grown, so that by 1923 more than 60 municipal playgrounds were open to give facilities for supervised play and instruction to the children of Washington. Each playground is under the supervision of a trained director who is assisted by experts in certain lines. When tired of games the children are encouraged to create some- thing with their hands, and the industrial work shown in the Museum gave evidence that substantial results are obtained.

An exhibition of the work of Viennese school children of drawings, wood cuts, textile work, and sculpture, was held in the lobby of the Natural History Building from May 5 to May 19, 1924, under the joint auspices of the National Gallery of Art and the American Fed- eration of Arts. These children of Vienna, who are chiefly of the poorer classes, are taught by Professor Cizek, an innovator in educa- tional methods. The children from the ages of 7 to 15 years go to him for three hours on Saturday and two hours on Sunday, but the

10 ~ REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1924

class is not compulsory. There is no charge made; it is free to rich and poor. Professor Cizek claims the difference in his method and that of others is that he does not teach too much; that he gives the children opportunity for self-expression. He places materials at their disposal and skillfully directs their thoughts and effort. The results are magical, and as one looks over the drawings in black and white and the paintings in color that have come from these youngsters, one would almost wish that they might continue ever children; for, according to Professor Cizek when the pupils get past 15 and develop self-consciousness, all save the very talented lose their skill—the fairy gift is withdrawn. The exhibition was of extracrdinary quality and interest and demonstrated what an in- spired teacher can do under given circumstances.

The reports of the head curators in the natural history depart- ments and of the curators in the other branches of the Museum, beginning on page 35, give in more detail the additions to and the work upon the collections during the year.

SERVICE, TO THE PUBLIC

The National Museum as the depository of the collections belong- ing to the Nation holds a special place among museums and kindred institutions of the country and is specially responsible for service to all the people. Every citizen of the Nation shares the burden of the Museum and each should be benefitted by its work.

The Museum serves the people in many and varied ways. Pri- marily it receives, classifies, and exhibits collections of objects in all lines of natural history and the arts and industries; but that is not all. The importance of public collections rests not upon the mere basis of custodianship, nor upon the number of specimens assembled and their money value, but upon the use to which they are put; and the National Museum endeavors at all times to serve all the people in every way that it can.

The Museum by its collections on exhibition conveys a message to those citizens from various parts of the country who visit. their capital; by its collections in the reserve series it affords assistance to workers in all lines represented; by its system of distribu- tion of duplicate specimens for educational purposes it aids the coming generations all over the land; by its correspondence it con- veys desired information in reference to specific problems in many lines; by its publications it extends the boundaries of learning; and more recently by the radio it has immeasurably extended its field of service.

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To the residents and schools of the city of Washington the Mu- seum serves also as a local establishment, though without direct local financial aid. To those who live in the District of Columbia, opportunity is afforded for participation in the many conventions, meetings, lectures, addresses, and special exhibitions given in the Mu- seum buildings, besides the advantages of the permanent exhibits. While the Museum has no docent service, its scientific staff is ever ready and freely gives of its time to explain the collections to visitors —those from Washington or strangers within its gates. Several of the curators who have connections with local colleges and uni- versities make it a practice to bring students from such institutions at regular intervals to study the collections. Likewise members prominent in the Boy Scout movement are active in arranging that the Boy Scouts make good use of the facilities here afforded.

While comparatively few staff members have been in direct con- tact during the year with the elementary schools and the private organizations for the popularization of natural history and the in- dustrial arts, yet every division of the Museum has been constantly called upon to answer questions relating to its specialties. These answers often require considerable work involving correspond- ence or telephonic communications with newspaper informa- tion bureaus, or interviews with persons sufficiently interested to call at the offices and laboratories, and they consume a considerable part of the time of some of its members. They are probably, how- ever, of more educational value than many a lecture. Newspaper men are in the habit of looking for and obtaining material for their popular articles from the Museum. Even writers of books, par- ticularly those on popular natural history, do not hesitate to first gather and store up material during interviews with the curators, and then submit the chapters of their publications to the curator for revision and approval. Editors of popular magazines similarly send manuscripts or proof for amplification or correction, or to make sure that the authors have kept within the boundaries of known facts. All these activities are distinct from the higher work represented by the scientific research constantly going on in the divisions and revealed in papers read before scientific societies or published in technical journals.

Specimens received by mail and material sent from other museums for identification also occupy much attention. The members of the staff spend considerable time and labor in identifying material for persons and institutions in various parts of the country.

The collections of the Museum in the field of the arts and in- dustries are more and more becoming recognized as a vast reference

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book of authentic information. Various governmental agencies rely upon the Museum’s specimens for the identification and com- parison of new material. Manufacturers are beginning to realize that the depositing of their products in the collections of the Na- tional Museum acts as an additional protection against suits for in- fringement and against those who may have been accidentally granted a patent on an art that is not new. Several examples of the value of this protection have recently been brought to the at- tention of the Museum by patent examiners and attorneys for patentees. In one case a suit for infringement involving large damages was settled out of court upon the evidence of a Museum specimen. In two other cases the denial by the United States Patent Office of a patent on a product, constructed upon what was claimed to be entirely new principles, was found warranted after examinations of specimens in the National Museum. The old adage, “There is nothing new under the sun,” is often shown to be true when an examination is made of the Museum’s collections. That feature of the American patent system which denies a patent to an art or invention that has been shown te the public for two years or more, increases the importance of a great collection in the Museum illustrating industrial processes and products and makes it an im- portant reference book to the United States Patent Office, as well as to manufacturers, inventors, and the investing public. With the continued cooperation of American industries these industrial col- lections will grow in importance and scope which will enable the National Museum to render more efficient service in this direction.

In the lecture field mention should be made of the work this year of Samuel S. Wyer, associate in mineral technology, who, through cooperation with the State of Pennsylvania, delivered 89 lectures bearing on natural resource problems, more particularly those of fuel and power. These lectures, without expense to the Museum, were delivered chiefly within the State of Pennsylvania to high-. school students, to students of every normal school of the State and of several of the colleges and universities; also to students of Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa; of Western Reserve University, Cleve- land, Ohio; of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; and at the annual meeting of the American Home Economics Association in Chicago. In addition, Mr. Wyer wrote and arranged for the pub- lication of the following timely articles: Correct use of fuel in the home, of which 60,000 copies were distributed throughout the United States; Power situation in the United States, originally sent to 45,000 Pennsylvania school-teachers, and since then 30,000 copies of which have been printed; Analysis of electric service for rural homes, with introduction by Dr. Charles D. Walcott, of which

REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1924 13

25,000 copies were printed; Limitations of superpower and giant power, of which 65,000 copies were printed; and Inspirational aspects of science, issued in an edition of 5,000 copies.

The lecture work of the Museum extends into thé mercantile field. Lectures on textile fibers, cloth construction, and ornamentation were given by F. L. Lewton, curator of textiles, before groups of em- ployees who buy and sell textiles in two large department stores, one in Washington and one in Baltimore. The employees thus trained will have opportunity to assist in raising the standards in such matters. :

The collections have served also art schools and manufacturers as sources of original designs for decorations. Particularly is this true of specimens in the division of ethnology.

As an extension of the activities of the Museum a collection of Pueblo Indian pottery, village groups, and groups showing native industries were sent in the spring of 1924 to the H. J. Heinz Co. for exhibition during the season at the Heinz Pier, Atlantic City, N. J., where it will attract the attention of many thousands of visitors.

The two traveling exhibits illustrating the principal processes of the graphic arts, which were mentioned in the last report, were in almost constant demand. They were exhibited in 13 cities in 9 different States during the year. These exhibits continue available for exhibition upon payment of transportation charges.

The Museum has also served in the diffusion of knowledge by assisting the Smithsonian Institution in its broadcasting program under Austin H. Clark, the curator of echinoderms in the Museum, in whose charge the entire subject was placed by Secretary Walcott. Arrangements were made in the autumn of 1923 for broadcasting from Station WRC, Radio Corporation of America at Washington, D. C., a talk on the Smithsonian Institution, historical in nature, followed by similar supplemental talks on its various branches by staff members.

The conclusion was reached in the spring, after careful study of radio programs, that the Smithsonian and Station WRC could to their mutual advantage give a series of informative talks on special scientific topics, and a regular Smithsonian period was established— every Wednesday at 6.15 p.m. The Carnegie Institution of Wash- ington and various scientific bureaus of the Government cooperated in making possible so ambitious a project. The Smithsonian was by these talks brought to the notice of thousands to whom it pre- viously was but a name.

Aitogether 18 items were broadcasted by the Smithsonian Insti- tution during the year, 18 different individuals participating, of whom 7 appeared under the auspices of or in cooperation with the

14 REPORT OF NATIONAL MUSEUM, 1924

Smithsonian and the remaining 11 as members of the staff, 7 being from the Museum. Those who participated in this program were few in number, however, as compared with those who contributed toward making it a success by furnishing information, suggestions, and encouragement. ‘The series will be resumed in the early autumn.

The Smithsonian radio program was as follows: a

October 19, 1923, “The Smithsonian Institution—Its origin and functions,” by Austin H. Clark, curator of echinoderms in the Mu- seum; October 22, The Bureau of American Ethnology,” by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, chief; October 29, “The Arts and Industries Museum,” by Carl W. Mitman, curator of mineral and mechanical technology in the Museum; October 31, ‘‘ The historical collections,” by Theodore T. Belote, curator of history in the Museum; November 5, The National Gallery of Art,” by Prof. W. H. Holmes, director (read by Mr. Clark); November 9, “The National Herbarium,” by Dr. F. V. Coville, honorary curator of plants in the Museum; November 16, The Astrophysical Observatory,” by Dr. C. G. Abbot, director; April 9, 1924, “'The giants of the animal world,” by Mr. Clark; April 16, “Little folks in Greenland,” by Miss Elisabeth Deichmann of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, given under the auspieces of the Smithsonian Institution; April 23, The Na- tional Zoological Park,’ by Ned Hollister, superintendent; April 30, “Useful plants of American origin,” by F. L. Lewton, curator of textiles in the Museum; May 7, “Shooting stars and what they are,” by Dr. George P. Merrill, head curator of geology in the Museum; May 14, “Animal terrors of past ages—dinosaurs,” by Charles W. Gilmore, curator of vertebrate paleontology in the Museum; May 21, “The nonmagnetic ship Carnegie and her work,’ by Capt. James Percy Ault of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, given in co- operation with the Smithsonian Institution; May 26, “Assiniboine Indian music—songs of the Strong Heart Society,” grass dance and war dance songs, accompanied by a native drum, by Spotted Eagle (George Connor) and Black Owl (James Archdale), arranged by Miss Frances Densmore and given under the auspices of the Smith- sonian Institution; May 28, “Large game animals of North Amer- ica,’ by Dr. E. W. Nelson, chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture,